The Campos Basin is considered a meso-oligotrophic system with oxygenated bottom water . Graf 1992), and this phytodetritus may play an important role in the nutrition of some foraminifera (Gooday 1988, Gooday & Lambshead 1989). In the Habitats project, an ecological study of living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera was performed in samples collected with a box corer, on the continental slope, Plateau of São Paulo, and canyons, during two campaigns (austral winter of 2008 and summer of 2009). About 65% of hydrocarbon exploration and production activities are concentrated in marine areas deeper than 400 m . Therefore, these organisms have the potential to provide important environmental information. Four main channels radiate of the lagoon mouth: Mira, S. Jacinto/Ovar, Ílhavo, and Espinheiro channels (Figure 1), with lengths of 20, 29, 15, and 17 km, respectively. In Aveiro Lagoon, H. germanica is mostly associated with confined lagoonal sites with high content in organic matter under low currents activity and waters with relatively high salinity. However, it is known that benthic foraminifera are very tolerant to oxygen depletion, and some species appear to be resistant to hypoxic and periodic anoxic conditions . , Debenay et al. This species seems to be quite tolerant to higher concentrations of metals, namely Zn, Pb, and Cu, in Aveiro Lagoon. Ammonia tepida has been invariably reported as a potential bioindicator of pollution at the majority of the coastal polluted sites .  have also shown that H. germanica is a successful pioneer species in polluted estuarine environments and in rich organic matter sediments and is tolerant to heavy metals. Groups 1–4 of the cluster analysis from rainy period (2009). In samples with a low number of foraminifera, aliquots of 10 cm3 were successively analyzed for to count of at least 100 stained individuals [33, 58]. The number of species per sample (S) and the diversity index of Shannon (H′)  were determined. Regarding the environmental quality of the lagoon, in internal areas near the river mouth, there are high concentrations of metals and organic matter . In the present study, no relationship between abiotic parameters and relative abundance of P. cananeiaensis was recorded. In this work, A. tepida is present in the most polluted sediments of the Aveiro Lagoon, but it seems to be not firstly related to the PTE enrichment. Even in brine channels of Antarctic sea ice they have been found. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Its diffuser has a length 10.1 m and is located at Araçá point, at a depth of 8 m. The discharge speed per final discharge is 91.46 l s−1 . Some benthic species burrow actively, though slowly, through sediment at speeds up to 1cm per hour, while others attach themselves to the surface of rocks or marine plants. Pararotalia cananeiaensis is an herbivorous, epifaunal species characteristic of a marine environment. Sediments in the DTCS area were silty with high concentrations of total organic carbon (1.7–2.4%), total nitrogen (0.2–0.3%), total sulfur (0.4–0.6%), and total phosphorous (0.12–0.18%) and inorganic phosphorous (0.07–0.11%). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Benthic foraminiferal faunas in Long Island Sound (LIS) in the 1940s and 1960s were of low diversity, and dominated by species of the genus Elphidium, mainly Elphidium excavatum clavatum, with common Buccella frigida and Egger- ella … Environmental response of living benthic foraminifera in Kiel Fjord, SW Baltic Sea A. Nikulina, I. Polovodova, J. Schönfeld To cite this version: A. Nikulina, I. Polovodova, J. Schönfeld. Throughout this area, 45 species were identified as belonging to Rotaliina (37 species), Textulariina (6 species), and Miliolina (2 species). At this station, 32 species were recognized. communis Asterotrochammina cf. According to Armynot du Châtelet et al. Benthic foraminifera highlighted the degradation of most, if not all, study sites, ranking most of the TWs in “Moderate” to “Bad” EcoQs. The smaller depths (6 m) occur on the continental side of the channel. Low pH levels coupled with the reactivity of biogenic carbonates may promote dissolution and destruction of calcareous tests . The dynamics of tidal currents, in interaction with the configuration of channels and local topography, generates different sedimentary facies in the Aveiro Lagoon, influencing the abundance of living benthic foraminifera. Society of Petroleum Engineers, vol.  observed that foraminifera distribution in the harbor of Port Joinville, at the Atlantic French coast, was influenced by the significant increase of pollution by metals such as Cu, Pb, and Zn and sediment texture. Although the foraminifera belong to both micro- and meiofauna, the results obtained with the ABC curves in this work evidence they can be used to trace environmental disturbance. They also corresponded to two distinct ecozones, Entrance and Confluence, already recognized in earlier studies. The final destination for a majority of the pollutants are frequently the coastal areas where the pollutants may cause deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and other legitimate uses of the sea . If you are interested in the title for your course we can consider offering an examination copy. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. species were previously considered to be the most heavy metal-tolerant foraminifer species. Benthic foraminifera are a group of organisms that are ubiquitous throughout the world’s oceans, but the distribution of individual species is constrained by their environmental preferences. Ce travail de thèse a pour objectif d'évaluer la possibilité d'utilisation des foraminifères benthiques comme bio-indicateurs des phénomènes d'eutrophisation en milieu marin ouvert. The Campos Basin is located between latitudes 21°S and 23°S in the southwestern margin of the South Atlantic Ocean (Figure 5). The occurrence of these species seems to reflect the Brazil Current System (BCS). The benthic foraminifera species that occur in the deep marine system of the Southwestern Atlantic (continental slope of the Campos Basin) are mainly controlled by local hydrodynamics, which mainly controls changes in the particulate organic matter flux, quantity, and quality of the organic matter in the seafloor. Ammonia tepida was the most abundant species in almost all samples (5–56.1%). We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. The inner lagoonal area receives the contribution of several rivers. This organism can be used as bioindicator of environmental conditions of coral reefs through a simple index called FORAM Index. The ABC curves are compared together with the W statistic calculation . Therefore, monitoring studies may provide data not only on the response of species to the variation of environmental parameters but also on the gradients of natural and/or anthropogenic environmental impact. Ecology and Applications of Benthic Foraminifera presents a comprehensive and global coverage of the subject using all the available literature. Benthic foraminifera have been proved to be excellent envi-ronmental bio-indicators in paralic environments, such as es-tuaries and lagoons (Coccioni, 2000; Frontalini et al., 2009; Armynot du Châtelet and Debenay, 2010). The freshwater is supplied mainly by Vouga and Antuã rivers with average flows over 50 and 5 m3 s−1, respectively  and in less way by small rivers such as Boco river, which flows into the south Ílhavo channel, and the Caster river, which flows into the north of Ovar channel, with an average flow less than 1 m3 s−1 . The environmental significance of the foraminiferal ecozones recognized in this study and their comparison with the ones identified in the previous years, helped to consider the ecological zonation as a tool for detecting seasonal and, possibly, long term annual environmental variability in the marine system. According to Pianka , k-strategist or conservative species have greater body size, longer life cycle, and population size largely constant in time, being close to the capacity of support of the environment; r-strategist species are known for their opportunistic behavior, small size, short life cycle, and very variable population size without adjustment balance in relation to available resources (mainly space and food). Together, this indicates that morphological heritability may be low across Foraminifera or at least in taxa exposed to a high degree of environmental instability such as planktic and shallow-living benthic foraminifera. In general, the density and diversity of foraminifera are low in the lagoon. In benthic foraminifera, the cytoplasmic body is encased in organic or mineralized test (shell), which provides a fossil record (Cambrian to recent). The sampling was performed during the dry season of 2008 and the rainy season of 2009. Species such as H. germanica, A. tepida, C. excavatum, and T. inflata are typical of coastal and transitional environments [45, 46] and are quite common in Ria de Aveiro. Foraminiferal density 1 (density 1) is expressed as the number of foraminifera per volume of sediment and density 2 is number of foraminifera per 10 cm3 . 2. Foraminifera are widely distributed in marine environments. Then, a series of treatments, using hydrogen peroxide at several pH levels, allows the oxidization of sulfides and phenol before an ultimate neutralization of the effluent. « A New Monitoring Tool for Assessing Environmental Impact of Offshore Drilling Activities: Benthic Foraminifera ». Ammonia tepida is a eurybiotic species characteristic of near-shore areas and paralic environments . We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. The biomass was calculated by the volumetric method [33, 69]. Salinity is a key factor for governing the structure (diversity) of foraminifera assemblages, as well as the concentrations of PTE, whereas the sensitive species (“marine species”) avoid the inner lagoonal environments. , the availability and quality of the food, the energy state (stability) at the benthic/pelagic boundary, and the grain size of the substrate seem to be the most important environmental factors determining the distribution pattern of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the Campos Basin slope. Here, they can be found in such habitats as marshes and abyssal plains where they move about and feed using their pseudopodia. Living assemblages of foraminifera can be quite variable over time depending on the variability of the physicochemical parameters (according to weather changes). The application of the ABC curves method in foraminiferal assemblages is a promising alternative to evaluate the environmental conditions and to access specific areas over time, and thus, they can be applied in environmental monitoring studies. These values were higher than those in sediments collected in the SSC and Araçá regions. A semienclosed coastal lagoon (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal), an estuarine system (São Sebastião Channel, SE Brazil), a continental shelf sector (Campos Basin, SE Brazil), and a segment of continental slope (Campos Basin, SE Brazil) are used as examples. Ammonia tepida was the most abundant species in all the samples (38.5–66%). The sampling grid, consisting of 10 sampling points, was located in an area of 125,000 m2 surrounding the diffusers. Since then, the number of works aiming to study the response of benthic foraminifera to environmental changing, namely to pollution, increased significantly . , contaminated rainwater and industrial water are treated in systems that use mostly decantation to separate oil from water (SAO = Separação de Águas Oleosas). From this on, other projects were executed in the Campos Basin, such as “Campos Basin Deep-sea Environmental Program” (Oceanprof) and “Environmental Heterogeneity of the Campos Basin” (Habitats) projects. Richness values varied from 12 to 33 species. Shallow-water benthic foraminifera as proxy for natural versus human-induced environmental change Lennart Jan de Nooijer. Sediment and water samples were collected from a total of 25 stations from two distinct sectors of the cave (North Branch and Middle Branch); sediments were analysed for living and dead BF and grain size, while Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen were measured in water samples collected close to sediment water interface. In the Grussaí and Almirante Câmara canyons, the stations were located in four isobaths (400, 700, 1000, and 1300 m deep) and the obtained data were compared with adjacent transects on the open slope (Figure 5). Benthic foraminifera typically feed on detrital organic matter that settles on the seafloor. A few workers, however, suggested that the preference of A. tepida for fine-grained organic carbon-rich sediments may be the reason for its dominance in polluted regions . The sediments sampled for geochemical analysis were immediately cool preserved on board. The planktic and benthic foraminifera of the upper Tortonian and lower Messinian successions allow us to constrain the age and palaeo-environment of deposition. Fossilized Foraminifera have been found in sediment and dated to as early as the 5th century B.C.E..The term “foraminifera” wasn’t used until 1830.Benthic foraminfera assemblages are sensitive to temperature, pH, salinity, and the substrate in which they live. Deciphering the impacts of domestic and industrial pollutants is difficult because they often occur together in sheltered coastal environments (bays or estuaries). The continental shelf presents many encrusting foraminifera, both large and small adults, as well as juveniles of larger species that are adhered to the sediment grains, indicating that it is a region with a predominance of high hydrodynamic energy near the bottom. Instead Miliammina fusca, Haplophragmoides manilaensis, Entzia macrescens, Tiphotrocha comprimata, Ammoscalaria pseudospiralis, Arenoparrella mexicana, Siphotrochammina lobata, and Ammobaculites balkwilli reach the highest relative abundance but have low densities in low salinity waters near the rivers’ mouth and in sediments with relatively low Eh and pH values, where the abundance of calcareous species decline [23, 37]. Species richness varied from 12 to 23 per 95 foraminifera. hal-00298257 Organic matter may favor microfauna , or it may be responsible for decreasing microfauna density and richness [10, 15]. Number of species per sample (SR) varied from 0 to 28 and Shannon index values (H) were < 2.8. Tidal currents affect not only the sediments' texture but also their chemical composition in Aveiro Lagoon [37, 38]. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. 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